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Lithium battery packaging

  Lithium batteries have been widely used in personal consumer goods, industrial production, transportation and other industries。Especially in daily life, the figure of lithium batteries can be seen almost everywhere, such as the mobile phone power supply, electric vehicle power supply, charging treasure and common electric garden tools, automatic sweeping robots contain lithium batteries。

  On the one hand, lithium products bring convenience to our lives, on the other hand, due to the characteristics of the product, lithium batteries have a greater potential danger, the ensuing safety accidents occur from time to time, and compared with other accidents, it is more difficult to completely extinguish. will cause significant personal and property damage。

  A 2016 Samsung Note7 phone battery caught fire,In July 2020, an airplane fire occurred at Pudong Airport,In particular, in January 2020, a COSCO Shipping International trade container ship caught fire in the cargo hold of lithium batteries,A total of 131 containers were affected,It caused great damage,All these accidents remind us that the safety risks of lithium battery products have always existed。

  The first category is lithium batteries shipped separately。Lithium battery as a class of lithium metal or lithium alloy as a positive/negative electrode material, the use of non-aqueous electrolyte solution of the battery, can be divided into lithium metal battery and lithium ion battery two categories。Lithium metal batteries contain metallic lithium, which is usually not rechargeable, and lithium-ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium, which can be recharged。When shipped separately, their corresponding UN numbers are 3090 and 3480。

  The second category is lithium batteries shipped with the equipment。In the actual trade transportation, lithium batteries are often transported together with equipment, there are two main situations。One is that the battery is installed in the device, and the other is that the battery is packaged with the device。In either case, depending on whether lithium is metallic, the corresponding UN numbers are 3091 and 3481, respectively。

  The third category is equipment or vehicles powered by lithium batteries。In recent years, all kinds of new energy vehicles powered by lithium batteries have emerged in endlessly, including bicycles, cars, balance vehicles and so on。The International Maritime Hazards Code assigns UN number 3171 to such products。

  Relevant laws and regulations basis

  The inspection and supervision of lithium batteries and their lithium battery products are mainly based on the United Nations "Model Regulations for Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods", the United Nations "Manual of Testing and Standards for Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods", the International Maritime Organization "Rules for the International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Sea", the International Civil Aviation Organization "Technical Rules for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air" and "Export Packaging Inspection of Dangerous GoodsInspection Procedure (SN/T0370.1-2009)(SN/T0370.2-2009)(SN/T0370.3-2012)等等。

  For example, the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Transport Rules require that the export of lithium batteries must pass UN38.3 Test, and provide a summary of the test。Each cell and battery pack should be equipped with a safety exhaust device,In the event of an ordinary accident,It should be designed to prevent force breakage;Each cell and battery pack shall be equipped with an effective device to prevent external short circuits;Each battery pack containing multiple parallel cells or battery series,Be equipped with effective devices (e.g., diodes, fuses, etc.) necessary to prevent the danger posed by reverse currents;Battery and battery pack manufacturing enterprises must establish a good quality management system and so on。

  The following requirements are mentioned in the packing guideline P903 of the International Maritime Hazard Regulation "List of Dangerous Goods"。It is divided by product category and applies to the relevant goods under items UN3090, 3091,3480 and 3481。

  1.When a battery or battery pack is packaged in a container, protective measures should be taken to prevent damage to the battery or battery pack due to movement or change of position in the container。Containers must meet the performance targets of Class II packaging。For batteries or battery packs with a gross weight greater than or equal to 12 kg, with a strong, crash-resistant housing, and for collections of such cells or battery packs, strong outer packaging, protective covers, pallets or other handling equipment are also required。Similarly, the battery or battery pack should also be fixed and cannot be moved accidentally, and the electrode should not bear the weight of other stacked items。

  2.The battery or battery pack packaged with the device, except that its container must meet the performance indicators of Class II packaging, the device must be fixed and must not be moved outside the container。The battery or battery pack should also be completely wrapped。

  3.The battery or battery pack installed in the equipment, in addition to meeting the previous requirements, should have measures to prevent accidental activation during transportation。It is also necessary to prevent short circuits in the battery or battery pack。

  4.When the package contains a combination of lithium batteries in the device and lithium batteries packaged with the device, the package shall be marked "Lithium metal battery UN3091 or lithium ion UN3481 placed with the device".。If a package contains both a lithium-ion battery and a lithium-metal battery, the package should be labeled in accordance with the requirements of both battery types。

  In addition to several points in the Packaging Guideline P903 of the International Maritime Hazard Regulation, there are the following inspection and supervision priorities that need to be paid attention to:

  First, whether it is a lithium-ion battery pack, or a lithium-ion battery pack in or packaged with the device, the watt-hour ratio must be marked on the outside of the container。

  Second, lithium battery products do not apply to limited packaging, nor do they apply to exempted quantity packaging。

  Third, the package must be posted lithium battery exclusive mark or logo。Use of "rectangular marking" for lithium batteries or lithium battery pack packages in accordance with Section 188。Other lithium batteries or lithium battery packs use Class 9 dangerous goods "diamond mark"。However, it is not excluded that some countries and regions require two signs to be posted at the same time, as long as the enterprise provides information。